This is part of an ongoing series on documentation development. Please be sure to read the previous posts in this series.
Part 1 , Part 3 , Part 4 , Part 5 , Part 6
Knowing which policies are necessary in your environment can be a challenge. Most organizations will have at least some formalized policies. Many of these are in response to legal requirements (HR policies) or specific incidents. After someone leaves their laptop in the car trunk for 6 hours on a 100 degree day, a policy on the care of equipment is generally issued.
With policies and procedures, it is essential to be proactive rather than reactive. In the case of the melted laptop, it would be far better to have instituted a policy regarding equipment care prior to the incident. That may be a simplistic scenario where the company is out a thousand dollars for a laptop, but it illustrates a point. This proactive posture becomes far more important when applied to more complex situations. What if, instead of being out a thousand dollars for a laptop, you were instead out tens or hundreds of thousands of dollars in fines after a cardholder data breach? Or worse, in the case of HIPAA, you find yourself with tremendous legal bills or in jail. (I am aware that is an extreme case, but it is illustrative of my point.)
As far as information security, every organization will have a unique set of foundational policies. Although there will be many that are common to all organizations, the unique qualities of each organization call for custom policies. How then, do we determine what basic policies we need? I have found that one of the simplest ways to determine which policies are essential is to look at all applicable regulations, laws, standards, and contracts and perform a gap assessment. For example, if you are subject to the PCI DSS, a good way to start is to take a copy of the standard and identify every place where a policy or procedure is required. PCI requires a policy on visitors to your facilities. As such, part of being compliant with PCI will be developing a visitor policy per the specific requirements of the standard. An important caveat: having a policy in place does not equal compliance.
An auditor will not only look for the policy, they will also look for evidence that the policy is enforced. So, for our example of a visitor policy, the auditor will want to see associated visitor logs and will check to see if they are issued a visitor badge per the policy. Careful readers will note that I slipped in mention of another document, the visitor log. In many cases, documentation leads to more documents. In this case, you will also likely need to develop training and awareness programs. Procedures for the receptionist to follow will help ensure that they are correctly logging visitors. An awareness program allows employees to understand that the policy exists as well as the rationale behind the policy.
As you move through the standard or regulation identifying where documentation is necessary, keep a list of what policies address which sections. At the conclusion of the gap assessment of the applicable regulations and compliances, you will have a firm understanding of what policies and related documentation are necessary. Keep in mind that in addition, it is important to review contractual obligations. These contractual obligations generally exist between you and your clients, vendors, and other service providers. Involving your legal department is always recommended.
In the next part of this series we will cover some of the pitfalls to avoid.